Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Airline Industry Airbus

The Airline Industry Airbus Abstract The airline industry has witnessed increased competition in the last few decades brought about by realignment of the key players in the sector. Airbus relies on a unique business model that aims in providing cost effectiveness through engineer to order systems while Boeing places more emphasis on the interests of the customers during production.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Airline Industry: Airbus specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Both companies are always investing heavily in technological developments with the aim of producing cost effective jets. There exist comparisons between the production strategies of the two manufacturers while concerted measures are required to address the inherent risks in the business. Innovation and utilisation of advanced technology remains the major driver of product development in the aircraft industry. Introduction The airline industry has witnessed increased competit ion in the last few decades brought about by realignments of the key players in the sector. While Boeing and Airbus are the dominant players in the field, other smaller entities have surfaced with innovative business strategies aimed at carving a niche ion the production of high speed jet liners. Innovation and incorporation of the latest technology has resulted in spirited competition between the two giants with Airbus narrowing the gap on its rival in the last ten years. The success in the airlines production business is sustained through adoption of unique and customer focused production development strategy. This essay will provide a summary and a comparison of the product development strategy for airbus and Boeing, other competitors in jet liners production and various ways in which Airbus can spread the major risks facing its ventures. Boeing and Airbus product development strategy Boeing Company has continually led its competitors in the production of commercial jet liners ca pable of ferrying hundreds of passengers at a time. While Airbus has continually challenged its grip at the helm, the innovativeness and consideration of consumers interests in the production phase has made to hold on to the market leader position. The two companies share similarities in that their production is inherently reliant on the most recent and advanced technology aimed at fulfilling the customised demand of their customers. Boeing has dominated the business in the America region while the Asian and European airlines usually rely on jets assembled by airbus.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Airbus relies on a unique business model that aims in spreading its core activities in different countries across the globe thus ensuring the integration of all related services during the production. In fact, the 160 locations distributed across the globe are complement ed by combination of research and development centers and manufacturing bases strategically situated in Spain, Germany, UK and France. Moreover, the company operates several subsidiaries in china and recently in Japan and North America. Airbus greatly relies on a unique engineer-order strategy that has continually boosted the synchronisation of the supply in relation to the demand systems (Airbus, 2010). More importantly, the manufacturer has embraced a consortium-oriented approach in relation to its product development. This is achieved through its reliance on the high degree of integration of the production process largely in the single-aisle and the popular wide-body commercial jets. The integration process has resulted in airbus producing the largest airplane (A380) with the capacity to carry slightly below 800 passengers at a time that was to provide intense competition to Boeing 787 dream liner (Airbus In addition to the production systems, Airbus has established several distr ibution centers for its spare parts in the Far East with the sole intention of fulfilling the needs of the Chinese commercial fleet market. The strategic move adopted by Airbus that depicted a constellation of beneficiaries in the fleet business has endeared them to chin and several governments in the globe, hence creating a competitive edge over its main rivals. On the other hand, Boeing Company came up with an innovative strategy with the sole intention of introducing jet liners with unique and new features from the available models in the world. The company adopted a longer-range product strategy that will enhance the production of large aircraft with capabilities of achieving higher speeds and carrying more than 500 passengers. Boeing production strategy is inherently focused on developing aircraft according to the needs and demands of the customers. In fact, their research and development team has dedicated their efforts in developing a faster and larger aircraft that would enh ance time savings during travels and reduce overall transportation costs for the airlines. According to Boeing (2010), the company continuously engages in communication with its customers with regard to the type and nature of flights that could prove useful in the long term.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Airline Industry: Airbus specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The customers’ desires of larger and faster aircrafts resulted in the initiation of development efforts towards aircraft that proved satisfactory to the customers. With more emphasis on custonmer preferences, Boeing has incorporated several features such as higher speeds, environmental benefits occasioned by quieter landings and largely by takeoffs in their development efforts. More importantly, the incorporation of longer range and planes with the ability to offer comfort while cruising at higher altitudes brought new excitement in commercial av iation. Boeing production strategy is therefore reliant on distance and capacity to enhance cost effectiveness in the airlines industry (Campos, 2001). How does Airbus strategy compare with Boeings? Airbus and Boeing are ideal examples of a comprehensive competitive case especially in the manufacture and marketing of their products. For the last three decades, the two rival rivals have engaged in stiff competition with airbus wrestling Boeing as the market leader (Irwin Pavcnik, 2004). Despite the fact that both rivals utilise different strategies in their production, similarities are inherent especially in their business models. Both companies are always investing heavily in technological developments with the aim of producing cost effective jets, thereby resulting in production of more variants while taking shorter time to introduce them in the markets. For instance, airbus integrates Windchill solutions to optimise its overall performance in operations and maintenance (Parametri c Technology Corporation, 2010). On the other hand, Boeing utilises team center solutions to improve on the life cycle management of its products. Although the companies have recorded different success with the software in the past several years, both still acknowledge the merits occasioned by their appropriate utilisation (Irwin Pavcnik, 2004). With regard to previous setbacks in aircraft development brought about by incompatibilities in the software, airbus has embraced latest technological solutions that enhance the synchronisation of its operations. Windchill and team center solutions has brought on board innovation and improved productivity through seamlessly linking people and product processes with invaluable knowledge throughout the life cycle (Leea et al, 2008).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Who else is competing for the high-speed jet liner? After many years of dominance by Boeing and lately by airbus, the jetliner business is gaining momentum amid increased competition and investment in production by Chinese manufacturers. In addition to the Chinese manufacturer, Embraer has emerged as a formidable force in the jet industry and has continually increased its market share. The Brazilian based outfit is popularly credited in the production of not only commercial and executive aircraft but also military and in the provision of comprehensive aeronautical services to airlines especially in large parts of South America. Although the company do not have the financial and infrastructural capability to destabilise the duo-poly enjoyed by the two main rivals, the Brazilian conglomerate has created itself a niche in the narrow-body category. In fact, the Embraer E-jets series have gained wide acceptance hence substantially improving its presence in the globe, although it faces st iff competition from Bombardier Aerospace in the manufacturing of jets especially in the regional market. The duopoly exhibited by the two giants will come under check once china unveils its fleet of home-grown jetliners. The collaboration between several US companies with the Chinese government aims to set up the requisite infrastructure that will eventually herald the initiation of manufacture of C919. Although the first batch of the aircraft is expected not earlier than 2016, major realignments in the aviation have started shaping with many companies placing orders for the aircrafts. The tough regulations put in place for investors and partners in the venture are likely to cause loss of business for both rivals owing to the fact that china is expected to be the single largest country to experience exponential growth in air traffic and infrastructure in the next 20 years (MacPherson Pritchard, 2003). The determination of the Chinese government and the heavy investments in the pro ject is believed to enhance the successful completion of the project that will eventually set pace for china to emerge as the leading manufacture of jet liners with capacity of slightly more than 150 passengers. Although the collapse of Soviet Union destabilised the economic power of Russia and aircraft manufacturers, llyushin and Tupolev still produce large jets despite commanding a slice of the market share. Through their jets with capacities of between 200 to 400 passengers, the manufacturers still produce aircrafts mainly for countries in Europe although majority of the designs have since ceased production owing to a constellation of market forces (Irwin Pavcnik, 2004). Plans are underway to create a major aircraft manufacture in Russia through consolidation of the fragmented aircraft manufacturer. Its worth noting that there is urgent to consolidate the ineffective aircraft manufacturers while investing colossal amounts of money in order to offer any meaningful competition to Airbus and Boeing in the long term. Spreading of inherent risks in Airbus ventures Like any other venture, Airbus has suffered diverse challenges and setbacks in its production and largely its marketing strategy of their fleet owing to wide reengaging factors in the business environment. Delays in production and design coupled with economic factors have proved the major factors that have continually the smooth running of operations. The weakening of the dollar and the failure to acquire requisite materials needed to ensure the aircraft conform to the projected designs has led to increased frustrations to both the management team and the buyers. In order to address the challenges, Airbus must take concerted efforts towards mitigating its production and marketing from external shocks. Risk sharing through spreading of components of production in different continents will cushion the company from external shocks experienced in a specific country. The spread of the various components su ch as assembly, design and largely fabrication has ensured the airline stays profitable and also cushions it from unwarranted economic sanctions. In fact, its embracement of a common pooling of various investors based in different countries has resulted in the popularity of its jet-liners in Europe and china. Outsourcing some of its con-core services and maintenance services can diminish the risks particularly in terms of assembly costs. Contracting of India and Chinese firms to maintain the jet-liners plying the Far East routes will enhance savings in terms of time and money for the airlines and the manufacturer. More importantly, the internationalisation of its core operations such as assembling helps it concentrate in mass production of specific categories of its fleet (Airbus, 2010). For instance, the final assembly point in china has rapidly enhanced the production of A320 family fleets. Risks sharing cushioned the company the hard effects of the global meltdown. Decentralisati on of its core operations will also improve the overall manufacturing process thereby meeting the consumer specifications while maintaining limited noise externally and also on the cabins. It is worth noting that the engineer to order system employed by Airbus has enhanced its ability to cushion itself from unexpected shocks since it allows high level of process integration across the various categories of jets (Irwin Pavcnik, 2004). Conclusion The divergent approaches adopted by the manufacturers in the production system have occasioned development of different variants of aircrafts that has caused realignment of customers. More importantly, Airbus has strengthened its expansion programs and upgraded its technological solutions thereby ensuring synchronisation of its core operations. To remain cost effective and competitive in the aircraft industry, the manufacturers must whole heartedly embrace technology, take into consideration customers’ preferences and decentralise maj ority of the core operations to remain afloat in turbulent economic times. Reference list Airbus. (2010). Corporate information: people and organization. Web. Boeing. (2010). Commercial airplanes. Web. Campos, L. (2001). On the competition between Airbus and Boeing. Air Space Europe, 3(1-2), 11-14. GLG Expert Contributor. (2007). Airbus Failure and Boeings Success with Project Life Cycle Management Software. New York: Management GLG Management. Web. Irwin, D. Pavcnik, N. (2004). Airbus versus Boeing revisited: international competition in the aircraft market. Journal of International Economics, 64(2), 223-245. Leea, S., Maa, S., Thimma, S. Verstraeten, J. (2008). Product lifecycle management in aviation maintenance, repair and overhaul. Computers in Industry, 59(2-3), 296-303. MacPherson, A. Pritchard, D. (2003). The international decentralisation of US commercial aircraft production: implications for US employment and trade. Futures, 35(3), 221-238. Parametric Technology Corpor ation. (2010). Airbus Strengthens Its Strategic Partnership with PTC with Deployment of Windchill ®. Web.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Environmental science question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Environmental science question - Essay Example Additionally, the government must consider that very many people or farmers are opposed to the idea of incentives; thus, it would be proper if for the government to abolish the idea completely. Notably, if the government introduces the incentive plan to farmer, it is lively to fail since many farmers will not join such schemes. 2. Why are people willing to accept the hazards of certain activities (such as smoking) but not of other activities (such as radiation from nuclear testing)? Certain hazards are bearable while others are not. The hazards can be controlled by human being and targeted only to the personals initiating them are considered bearable; hence, for instance, smoking is a single person driven and it cannot affect a vast are or many people at once. On the other hand, hazards related to nuclear testing may be unbearable since the radiation emitted from the same are likely to affect a vast area and may last for quite some period (Chiras, 2013). Therefore, nature oriented ha zards may be out of control of human control; thus, it is always advisable that the same must be avoided at all costs. Moreover, such nature related hazards may affect other thing or natural resources, environment, and human nature as it could have been the original intension. 8.1. Discuss the negative effects of pollutants on crops, forests, and other materials. The effects of pollution vary enormously depending on the source of such population and the area it pollutes. However, plants and crops are affected majorly from air pollution. Dust pollution is usually generated from bear grounds, quarries, and cement works among other industrial activities usually affects crops and other materials from the surface. Other than blocking sun rays, the dust usually blocks stomata thereby hindering their carbon dioxide conductance; hence, interfering with plant or crops’ photosystem II. Pollutant gases like sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen usually interfere with the growth and dev elopment of plants and crops in different ways. For instance, the oxides of both metals usually enter the plants’ leaves through the stomata from which they follow the same diffusion pathway as carbon dioxide (Chiras, 2013). The oxides of nitrogen then dissolves in the cells giving rise to nitrite ions and nitrate ions that interferes with nitrogen metabolism as opposed to if they could have been absorbed through the plants’ roots. Additionally, sulphur di-oxide usually causes stomata closure leading to withering of the plants especially crops. 2. Discuss the attributes of successful recycling programs. Many recycling programs usually fail because of poor recycling or recycling container design. Therefore, effective recycling programs can only be achieved by first specifying the intended material or materials to be recycled before purchasing such materials or containers. Moreover, such containers must be designed properly and must be ergonomically correct. Nonetheless, the recycling containers must also be designed with several but relevant considerations in mind. Other than the recycling container, recycling program will only be successful if the program first consider and understand the type of the material they intend to recycle (Chiras, 2013).

Monday, February 10, 2020

Answer the Questions 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Answer the Questions 2 - Essay Example For instance, a structure also helps in creating internal divisions and functions, in formalisation, in departmenalisation, for team-building, in clarifying authority and position power. It is worthwhile to mention that an organisation’s managerial structure is visually represented by organisation chart that identifies all aforementioned characteristics. A Vertical Functional structure is one in which information flows from top-to-bottom and bottom-to- top and where all decision making powers are enjoyed by a firm’s Owner, President or CEO. The organisational chart portrays total number of departments and their directors, divisional heads and managers that work under top management and that are handed over key responsibilities for conducting business operations. The Divisional structure is also known as Product or Program structure because here the departments are grouped on basis of organisational output that could either be a good or service. Indeed, in such type of structure, each product division has all necessary, though small, departments such as Marketing, Production, Finance, IT etc. The matrix structure is actually a combination of various aspects of vertical and divisional chain of command simultaneously in a business organisation. In fact, this type of structure is quite helpful because it facilitates interaction and internal communication among employed personnel in corporate setting. In addition, the structure has dual chain of authority. The next structure is known as Team Approach where managers group employees into teams to ensure greater employee participation in business affairs, organisational flexibility, delegation and authority of tasks to lower managerial levels and greater coordination. In other words, this team structure promotes mutual accountability and responsibility about company goals and objects, which

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Rejected Shepherd Essay Example for Free

Rejected Shepherd Essay Introduction The nation of Israel has been waiting for their Messiah for millennia. Prophesied since the days of Adam, promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, anticipated by Moses, and lauded by David, the Jewish nation expected Messiah to come in power and glory and to usher in a nearutopian kingdom in which Israel would be an autonomous state. Such a one-sided interpretation of prophecy has caused Israel to miss the suffering Savior of Isaiah 53 and to wander in a spiritual haze for thousands of years. The failure of the Jews to recognize and accept their Messiah was not, however, surprising to God. The last six chapters of the prophecy of Zechariah center on the advent of the Jewish Messiah. Within those chapters, God chronicled many of the events leading up to both the first and second comings of Christ including His rejection by the nation of Israel as a whole. This paper will focus on the details concerning the first coming of Christ and the historical fulfillment of events as foretold by Zechariah. One thing the Israelites did expect to occur with the coming of Messiah was judgment to fall on those nations that persecuted the Jews. The militant Zealots of the first century AD were always watching and ready to fall in behind a king, sword in hand. Many of the other Jews, while maybe not as openly aggressive toward foreign control, eagerly awaited the freedom that would come with the kingdom of Messiah. Chapter nine of the prophecy of Zechariah begins with a declaration that would have sparked the emotion of any Jew that was still recovering from his or her time in Babylonian captivity. Judgment was coming on the nations. Holland 2 CHAPTER TWO. The First Coming of Messiah Judgment of the Nations When looking at prophecies concerning the coming of Christ, it is important to understand that both comings may or may not be in view and that the events described in the prophecy may relate to both comings. This writer would like to focus on those prophecies of Zechariah that have fulfilled historically at the first coming of Christ. Zechariah 9:1-7 describes certain strongholds of the nations surrounding Israel. The first to face the judgment of God are Hadrach and Damascus. There is no clear reference in Scripture or history at to the location of Hadrach, but in his comments on Zechariah 9:1 from his study Bible, MacArthur indicates this might be â€Å"a reference to the dual Medo-Persian kingdom. † Damascus, however, is clearly identified as the capital of Syria, the nation that led the northern kingdom of Israel into captivity. With the judgment on these cities, the Lord included the city of Hamath and the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon. Tyre is mentioned in verses two and three as being â€Å"very skillful† and as having â€Å"heaped up silver like dust, and gold like the dirt of the streets. † The abundant wealth of the city and a parallel prophecy of judgment are recorded in the following from Ezekiel 28:4-7: [B]y your wisdom and your understanding you have made wealth for yourself, and have gathered gold and silver into your treasuries; by your great wisdom in your trade you have increased your wealth, and your heart has become proud in your wealth—therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because you make your heart like the heart of a god, therefore, behold, I will bring foreigners upon you, the Holland 3 most ruthless of the nations; and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom and defile your splendor. Such wealth and wisdom did not spare these cities when the face of God turned toward them in judgment as Tyre was, indeed, stripped of its prosperity just as Zechariah prophesied in 9:4. Verses five and six show the progression of judgment southward through the land of the Philistines. Four of the five major Philistine cites were included in the path of destruction; only Gath was excluded. These cities were said to look on the destruction of Tyre and Sidon in fear and hopelessness (9:5). Afterward, their land was occupied with foreigners, and, according to Expositor’s Bible Commentary , they were stripped of their â€Å"repulsive† idolatrous practices (9:67). The first seven verses of chapter nine chronicle the destruction of the enemies of Israel during the phenomenal conquest of Alexander the Great. The young leader conquered the Syrians bringing an end to the Medo-Persian Empire. After this Alexander went to the Mediterranean coast and carried his conquest south. In his invasion of Palestine, he executed the judgment of God throughout the land. The famous siege of Tyre is testimony to the influence of God behind this pagan ruler. The island city of Tyre seemed impregnable, but using debris from the mainland city, which had been sacked by Nebuchadnezzar some years earlier, Alexander built a causeway and marched his army across the channel and right up to the city walls. Using siege weapons, he broke through the defenses and decimated the city selling tens of thousands into slavery (â€Å"Siege†). From there Alexander marched south and conquered the cities of the Philistines â€Å"killing their national pride† but leaving alive a remnant (MacArthur). Holland 4 With the swift and effective conquest of Alexander, many would find it odd that Jerusalem and Judea was spared. Bible students, however, have a very clear answer for this: God had already said His people would be spared. This leads the discussion into Zechariah 9:8 and the promised preservation of the Jewish nation. Preservation of Israel Great problems arise in the continuity of prophetic Scripture if Israel ever ceases to be a nation. In the midst of calamitous activity around the Jewish nation, Zechariah provided yet another hope for the sons of Jacob. According to verse eight of chapter nine, the mighty hand of God was defending His chosen people. Alexander, according to Jewish tradition, visited Jerusalem after receiving a vision in a dream of the high priest of the Jews. When he arrived at the city and saw the priest as he was in the dream, the young general bowed and knew he would completely conquer Persia (â€Å"Zechariah†). God had certainly spared His people during the conquest of Alexander, but verse eight also indicates the nation of Israel would never be overrun by an invading army. Even a cursory look at history reveals such an event did happen again in 70 AD. That year the Roman general, Titus, sacked Jerusalem, dispersed the Jewish nation, and razed the temple to the ground. The prophecy in verse eight must, therefore, refer to the second coming of Messiah (MacArthur). During the time of the Tribulation, Revelation 7:4 recounts 144,000 Jews will be sealed to live in spite of the intense persecution by Antichrist. Following that period, the Jewish nation will never again be overrun by oppressors. Coming of Messiah Zechariah 9:9-17 seem to be a reference to both comings of Messiah. In verse nine He is referred to as a king â€Å"humbled and riding on a donkey. † This entire verse was directly stated to Holland 5 have been fulfilled in Matthew 21:1-5 and John 12:12-15 when the God of creation rode into Jerusalem on a young donkey to shouts of praise. A glorious picture of Messiah is presented in Zechariah 9:9. He was â€Å"righteous, having salvation, gentle† and rode and animal of peace, not a warhorse. If any of the Jews present at the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem was familiar with this verse, it is no wonder they lauded Him as king. The puzzling thing is: of those who envisioned Zechariah 9:9 when they saw Jesus enter Jerusalem, how many remembered the later prophecies of Zechariah 11. Since this paper focuses on the words of Zechariah concerning the first coming of Messiah and since 9:10 through 10:12 speak primarily of the second advent and the future establishment of the millennial theocracy, the reader will be directed to the beginning of Zechariah chapter eleven to conclude this look at the fulfilled prophecies of Messiah contained in this book. Rejection of Messiah Chapter eleven opens â€Å"in stark contrast to† the previous chapters (MacArthur). The prophecies of chapters nine and ten that speak of the second coming of Messiah present Him as a glorious king who showers peace and blessing on the people of Israel. Chapter eleven, however, begins with a lament over the destruction of the land of Palestine (1-3). The interpretation of these first three verses is debatable, but they most likely speak of â€Å"the destruction of Jerusalem in A. D. 70 and the subsequent devastation of the whole land, which resulted in the dissolution of the Jewish state† (MacArthur). Such destruction caused those whose lives and livelihoods were firmly planted in the land to wail (Zech. 11:1-3). Isaiah 53:3 recounts the mournful cry of the rejected Servant, Messiah. Likewise, Zechariah 11 states the reason behind the lamentable destruction of verses 1-3: the Shepherd had been rejected by His flock. God gave Zechariah a message he was to role-play in verses 4-6, Holland 6 which the prophet enacted in verses 7-14. The symbolism of these latter verses is important in relating to the actual events of the rejection of Jesus. Zechariah recorded that he went through the process of caring for a flock of sheep. MacArthur relates this literal event to both the feeding of the Word of God by Zechariah and the then-future work of the Shepherd-Messiah. The prophet had two staves, Favor and Union, which were used to tend the flock. The name of each had significance relating to the covenantal relationship between God and the nation of Israel. The first half of Zechariah 11:8 is greatly debated. The rejection of the three shepherds in this verse, according to MacArthur, seems to relate to the removal of the offices of â€Å"priests, elders, and scribes of Israel. . . . God ended the traditional offices of the mediators and in [their] place brought a new priesthood of believers. † The under-shepherds of Israel failed in their duties and actually led the flock to reject the true Shepherd. Because of their rejection, the Shepherd turned His back on the flock and let them devour themselves, which they quite literally did during the siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD (MacArthur). The breaking of the staves in verses ten and fourteen indicate the broken covenant of that generation [although the eternal covenant of God with the Jewish nation is still in tact]. Upon breaking the covenant between Shepherd and sheep, a call was made of payment for services rendered, to which the sheep [literally, the owners of the flock] respond by giving Zechariah the insignificant amount [in value] of 30 pieces of silver, which was hardly worth the time invested with the flock. Zechariah was then instructed to â€Å"throw it to the potter† (Zech. 11:13). This, again, was directly and literally fulfilled in Matthew 27:3-10 when Judas betrayed Jesus for the price of a slave and later threw the money at the priests who, in turn, used it to buy the worthless field in which Judas was eventually buried. Holland 7 CHAPTER THREE Conclusion The prophecies of Zechariah concerning the first coming of Messiah are not without great amounts of irony. The people eagerly awaited the entrance of Messiah, according to the prophecies, but failed to see they would reject Him. [The irony of the 30 pieces of silver being used to purchase the burial field of Judas is another.] The foolish decisions of the Jewish nation have caused them to become largely apathetic toward God and to wonder if Messiah will ever come. They expected a military deliverer and were sent a suffering Servant, whom they wholly rejected. One has to wonder the magnitude of the mourning of Israel when Messiah does come on a white charger to receive His rightful throne (Zech. 12:10). Judgment once came on the nations that had oppressed Israel, and judgment will come again. Israel was once preserved from destruction by the mighty hand of God; Israel will be preserved again. Messiah once entered Jerusalem hailed as a king, and He will enter again prepared to take what is His. The Jews once rejected their Savior. When He comes again, this will not be repeated. Holland 8 Works Cited MacArthur, John Jr. The MacArthur Study Bible. Electronic Ed. Nashville: Word Pub. , 1997. Siege of Tyre. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . 10 Apr 2007, 23:21 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 20 Apr 2007 . The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. Wheaton: Crossway, 2001. â€Å"Zechariah. † The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: New Testament . CD-ROM. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Considering the Praises and Criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye :: Catcher Rye Essays

Considering the Praises and Criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye    Since its publication in 1951, J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye has served as a firestorm for controversy and debate. Critics have argued the moral issues raised by the book and the context in which it is presented. Some have argued that Salinger's tale of the human condition is fascinating and enlightening, yet incredibly depressing. The psychological battles of the novel's main character, Holden Caulfield, serve as the basis for critical argument. Caulfield's self-destruction over a period of days forces one to contemplate society's attitude toward the human condition. Salinger's portrayal of Holden, which includes incidents of depression, nervous breakdown, impulsive spending, sexual exploration, vulgarity, and other erratic behavior, have all attributed to the controversial nature of the novel. Yet the novel is not without its sharp advocates, who argue that it is a critical look at the problems facing American youth during the 1950's. When developing a comprehensive opinio n of the novel, it is important to consider the praises and criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye. When studying a piece of literature, it is meaningful to note the historical background of the piece and the time at which it was written. Two J.D. Salinger short stories, "I'm Crazy" and "Slight Rebellion off Madison," were published in periodicals during the 1940's, and introduced Holden Caulfield, the main character of The Catcher in the Rye. Both short stories were revised for later inclusion in Salinger's novel. The Catcher in the Rye was written in a literary style similar to prose, which was enhanced by the teenage slang of the 1950's. It is a widespread belief that much of Holden Caulfield's candid outlook on life reflects issues relevant to the youth of today, and thus the novel continues to be used as an educational resource in high schools throughout the nation (Davis 317-18).    The first step in reviewing criticism of The Catcher in the Rye is to study the author himself. Before his novel, J.D. Salinger was of basic non-literary status, having written for years without notice from critics or the general public. The Catcher in the Rye was his first step onto the literary playing field. This initial status left Salinger, as a serious writer, almost unique as a sort of free agent, not bound to one or more schools of critics, like many of his contemporaries were. Considering the Praises and Criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye :: Catcher Rye Essays Considering the Praises and Criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye    Since its publication in 1951, J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye has served as a firestorm for controversy and debate. Critics have argued the moral issues raised by the book and the context in which it is presented. Some have argued that Salinger's tale of the human condition is fascinating and enlightening, yet incredibly depressing. The psychological battles of the novel's main character, Holden Caulfield, serve as the basis for critical argument. Caulfield's self-destruction over a period of days forces one to contemplate society's attitude toward the human condition. Salinger's portrayal of Holden, which includes incidents of depression, nervous breakdown, impulsive spending, sexual exploration, vulgarity, and other erratic behavior, have all attributed to the controversial nature of the novel. Yet the novel is not without its sharp advocates, who argue that it is a critical look at the problems facing American youth during the 1950's. When developing a comprehensive opinio n of the novel, it is important to consider the praises and criticisms of The Catcher in the Rye. When studying a piece of literature, it is meaningful to note the historical background of the piece and the time at which it was written. Two J.D. Salinger short stories, "I'm Crazy" and "Slight Rebellion off Madison," were published in periodicals during the 1940's, and introduced Holden Caulfield, the main character of The Catcher in the Rye. Both short stories were revised for later inclusion in Salinger's novel. The Catcher in the Rye was written in a literary style similar to prose, which was enhanced by the teenage slang of the 1950's. It is a widespread belief that much of Holden Caulfield's candid outlook on life reflects issues relevant to the youth of today, and thus the novel continues to be used as an educational resource in high schools throughout the nation (Davis 317-18).    The first step in reviewing criticism of The Catcher in the Rye is to study the author himself. Before his novel, J.D. Salinger was of basic non-literary status, having written for years without notice from critics or the general public. The Catcher in the Rye was his first step onto the literary playing field. This initial status left Salinger, as a serious writer, almost unique as a sort of free agent, not bound to one or more schools of critics, like many of his contemporaries were.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Individual Assignment Essay

Having a strong web presence is not only important in today’s world, it is vital for survival in today’s super connected world. Companies, banks, agencies and private industries must be able to create an environment to interact with customers, government officials and other companies in order to thrive. Opening yourself up to anyone through the Internet often means opening your system up to the world. Today we are more connected than ever, and cyberspace is littered with a multitude of individuals, some with the intent to compromise network confidentiality, integrity and availability. Anyone with a computer and Internet access can become a victim or criminal over the web. As a result, networks and servers are under constant attack these days. Attackers are changing their techniques daily and are on a never ended endeavor to disrupt companies for their selfish reasons. Two such forms of disruption are Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. These forms of disruption have cost companies millions of dollars and are showing no signs of stopping. That is why it is up to security professionals to create the best safeguards and impose efficient and proper techniques to prevent, mitigate and discover these attacks before they inflict terrible harm. In the following assignment, these important topics of prevention, mitigation and discovery will be discussed as they relate to DoS and DDoS attacks on today’s systems. Specifically, three academic journals have been selected that relate to this topic. This essay will first briefly summarize each article that was selected and state the methods of prevention, mitigation or discovery as they relate to denial of service attacks. The second part of this essay will explore in detail the specific methods discussed in the summaries as they relate to a proposed technique and practical approach, which can be implemented, into a platform. The strengths and weaknesses of each method that is selected will also be discussed within the summary. 2 Brief Overview In order to better understand the reasons for discovering, mitigating and preventing these attacks, it is necessary to first review what exactly Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service attacks are and why these specific journal articles were selected for this assignment. DoS and DDoS attacks are extremely popular cyber attacks launched by attackers because of their effectiveness and ease. The goal of a DoS attack is for the attacker to render certain specific resources of the victims’ computer or server unusable or make them unavailable. The attacker does this by sending large amounts of traffic that appear to be legitimate request to the victim. As a result, the victim’s computer or server is tangled up and that particular resource cannot be used. These attacks expose a significant loophole not just in certain applications, but loopholes in the TCP/IP suite (Joshi & Misra, 2010). A DoS attack only occurs when a resource on a computer or network is slowed down or stopped completely by an individual maliciously. A DDoS attack is very similar to a DoS attack. However, this form of attack is launched on multiple computers or devices in an organized manner. The goal, once again, is to attack a specific target or multiple computers and servers and make them unavailable for use. The first ever reported DDoS attack occurred at a University in 1999. From then on, these attacks have become increasingly more complex and sophisticated. Their widespread effect has ranged from simply slower speeds on websites, to financial institutions losing millions for not being accessible to customers. The journal article â€Å"DDoS Prevention Techniques† was chosen because it does a fantastic job of explaining the differences between the two attacks, multiple DDoS tools that attackers use, and lastly ways to prevent and defend against the attacks. The second article selected is titled â€Å"Prevention of Attacks under DDoS Using Target Customer Behavior. † I selected this article because it not only gives an overview of this form of attack but also a specific method of protecting a potential server by blocking DoS attacks with behavior based actions. The last article I chose â€Å"A Novel Technique for Detection and Prevention of DDoS† also gives a brief overview of the attack as well as a specific method to help filter DDoS attacks on online banking websites. 3 Article One The article â€Å"DDoS Prevention Techniques† mainly centered around DDoS attack and the methods of preventing them as well as the tools that criminals use to execute these attacks. One example of a tool that these individuals use is Trinoo, which can be used to, â€Å"launch a coordinated UDP flooding attack against target system† (Joshi & Misra, 2010). Another tool that Joshi & Misra discussed was Trinity. This DDoS attack tool is IRC based and uses flooding methods of the TCP SYN, TCP RST, TCP ACK request. This tool not only can flood the TCP/IP but also flood the UDP and IP Fragment. This article offers various forms of preventative methods against DDoS attacks. They separated them into two groups: General Techniques and Filtering Techniques. Since the article gave a plethora of examples of general techniques I will discuss two of them as well as the advantages and disadvantages to these practical approaches. One method of preventing against DDoS attacks is â€Å"disabling unused services. † Attackers can’t take advantage of something if it is not available to them. So, the fewer applications and open ports that are on a given host, the less likely an attacker can manipulate any vulnerability on that host. Therefore, if a network application is unnecessary it should be disabled or closed immediately (Joshi & Misra, 2010). The advantage of this approach is that it minimizes the attack surface, thus protecting the host from receiving certain request from ports that can be used to flood the system. The disadvantage to this approach is that you limit the amount of applications you may need to help run your organization more efficiently. Another method of preventing these attacks is by using a firewall. A firewall can help mitigate against simple DDoS attacks by using simple rules such as implicit deny, or deny any for certain ports and IP addresses. However, the disadvantage of using a firewall to mitigate attacks occurs when sophisticated attacks are launched on ports such as Port 80 used for web traffic. A firewall, cannot tell the difference between legitimate traffic and malicious traffic that comes through the port (Joshi & Misra, 2010). This can lead to an attack still being carried out if the firewall cannot decide what is good and bad traffic. One filtering technique that was discussed in the journal article was the technique of â€Å"History Based IP Filtering. † During normal function, traffic seems to stay balanced and stable. Yet, during most DoS attacks they are carried out with IP addresses that have never been seen before on the network to flood the system. This form of filtration relies on an IP Address Database (IAD) to store the IP addresses that are used frequently. If an attack is launched and the source address does not match any in the IAD the request is dropped. The advantage to this form of protection against DDoS attacks is that it will keep unknown IP address from ever reaching the host. However, the draw back is that it will not keep out legitimate or real IP address that are already in the database. Also, â€Å"Cost of storage and information sharing is very high† (Joshi & Misra, 2010). So if cost is an issue for an organization, this method may not be best. These methods can be implemented fairly easy for any organization. Most security professionals should already have these measures in place such as firewalls and minimizing the attack surface with an emphasis on disabling unnecessary services. History based IP filtering is a costly alternative to those methods but can be an additional form of security. 4 Article Two The second article that will be discussed is titled, â€Å"Prevention of Attacks under DDoS Using Target Customer Behavior. † This article discusses a method using an algorithm to determine if request to a specific server should be blocked or allowed in real time to mitigate the attack. The algorithm is used to maintain a list of users and to stop attacks from unknown users. The purpose of this tool is to prevent only authorized clients onto the server. This method accomplishes this by first determining which category the requesting client should be registered or non-registered. The tool uses an anomaly-based system during peak times to help determine if certain requests are deemed malicious or not. A client will deemed malicious if the client sends repeated request during peak hours and deemed an anomaly client, or possible attacking client (Kuppusarny & Malathi, 2012). This tool can track which request made on the server are authorized or unauthorized. Once the request is deemed unauthorized, the client is then placed in a group of non-registered users and blocked temporarily until the peak time is finished. This proposed method also features a count system for the amount of request a client may attempt, which are â€Å"Access Count† and â€Å"Warning Counts. † The article explains this in depth by stating, â€Å"The access count is the count that can be incremented every time the client sends the request. The Warning Count is the count that can be incremented once the unregistered client sends anomalous request† (Kuppusarny & Malathi, 2012). This count system helps to determine if the request are legitimate and if so are only temporally blocked during peak times in order to keep systems running and not flooded with request. This feature also presents a permanent block alternative as well. This occurs once the warning count reaches it’s threshold (Kuppusarny & Malathi, 2012). This can be extremely useful when defending against DDoS attacks because it works in real time. The chart below illustrates how this method is carried out for all users trying to request information from the server. This tool could easily be implemented for any organization looking to defend their systems as well as monitor customer and client user data. The only disadvantage that may occur while implementing this will be the temporarily lockout mechanism that legitimate users may encounter if they enter too many incorrect requests. Inconvenience for some users is the only drawback. However, this approach is extremely promising because it does not completely block IP addresses like some filtration systems. They are placed in a certain unauthorized category away from authorized clients and systems. And once they meet certain requirements their request may be authorized if they do not go over the warning count. Also as an added security feature if the client goes over the warning number of request and is also unauthorized they are blocked completely. 5 Article Three The final article that will be discussed is titled â€Å"A Novel Technique for Detection and Prevention of DDoS. † This article was dedicated around a specific method for detecting and preventing DDoS attacks. This method focused on using the Hidden Markov Model. Very similar to the previous method in being an anomaly based system that uses request behavior to block or authorize users. This method also uses an algorithm to track user behavior and determine whether the requests are legitimate or an attack. However uses a different form of authorizing request before allowing access into the system. During the Anomaly Detection Module of the system when resources are scarce and the server is under heavy traffic the filter is applied. The system uses a history to maintain each of the client’s IP addresses. If â€Å"unusual† behavior is detected through the algorithm the server then goes into a special detection mode. It, â€Å"reply’s with the captcha to that client. † And if a correct CAPTCHA response is not received within three responses, it then checks the request history sequence. If the difference between the request for the CAPTCHA is less than the threshold allowed, the client is blocked. (Patil, Salunke & Zade, 2011). This model is a great tool in defending against DDoS and also monitoring traffic on a server as a whole. When traffic begins to reach its peak this system can help alleviate between legitimate and flooding traffic. This model was put to the test in this article with a fake bank system. The testers used a script in java that repeatedly requested the log in page for a fake account. The server responded with CAPTCHA pages to verify if the requester was legitimate. After three failed attempts the IP address was blocked. This type of method should be implemented across systems everywhere. The only foreseeable disadvantage would be from those users who enter the wrong CAPTCHAs more than three times and are blocked out of the system. Other than that this method would be a great tool in the defense against DDoS attacks. 6 Conclusion Denials of Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks have proven to be a huge hassle for security professionals. Criminals are becoming more sophisticated in their attack schemes and are leaving security teams in a never ending game of catch up. It only takes one loophole in a defense strategy for an individual to wreck havoc on a system. None of these methods will stop DoS and DDoS attacks entirely. However, in the future we must look for tools that include multiple defense strategies to stop these forms of attack. Layering a computer network offers many benefits especially if one level of defense falls, it will not compromise the entire system. The fight to defend cyberspace against these malicious attackers is forever ongoing, but with the right tools and defense strategies we can help maintain a safer and productive Internet experience for all users. 7 Work Cited

Monday, January 6, 2020

Global Warming And Climate Change - 974 Words

For many years there were discussions about global warming, whether it is true or false. Is there evidence to prove that global warming has impacted the climate due to the rise in the earth’s temperature? Climate change is a problem that is worldwide that should be reviewed. The rise in the earth’s temperature has caused some impact to the weather and climate changes to many places worldwide. This rise in temperature has the potential of causing drastic changes to the earth in many ways. It is time to view the global warming concerns and determine if the information and finding have impacted the climate and the weather. This paper will view some of the causes, similarities, and solution of global warming today.. Global warming happens when a change in the climate system or temperature. Global warming is defined as the gradual heating of the earth surface, oceans and atmosphere. Since the late 1800 scientist have document the rise in the temperatures worldw ide. The National Aeronautics and Space Act ( NASA) indicate that the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels. Half of all car emission are absorbed by the Earth’s ocean and land. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released four key findings about global warming. First the human activities are responsible for 95% of global warming. Second for the past 800,000 years carbon dioxide is at an unprecedented level ever. Third is theShow MoreRelatedClimate Change Of Global Warming924 Words   |  4 Pages Figure 0.1 shows the different effects of global warming. Global warming is the warming of our planet at an extreme rate. The Earth’s climate has warmed by 7.8OC since 1880. (Quick facts about science, 2015). What causes global warming? The cause of global warming is the carbon dioxide. This acts like a blanket. Protecting the earth, and heating the earth. 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Climate Change is a change in the demographic distribution of weather patterns, and related change in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, happening over time scales of decades or longer. It’s the world’s greatest threat. Climate change is the change in temperature over a period of time. It involves the greenhouse effect and global warming. Where is it? It is an issue affecting everyone everywhere. ClimateRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1474 Words   |  6 Pagesphenomenon, known as â€Å"smog† became an often daily occurrence in big, urbanized cites across the globe. Also, Al Gore’s book, An Inconvenient Truth, popularized the issue of climate change and global warming as a result of the damage that the modern world has done to the atmosphere. He noted that people resist the facts about climate change due to the inconvenience of changing their lifestyles. But, uninhibited industrialization of several countries has led to intense modernization and revolution of theRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming928 Words   |  4 PagesThis paper will discuss climate change and global warming on the economy. The paper also gives a description on climate change and global warming. As well as what it hold for future business owners. It will also discuss what the government is doing about climate change/global warming. Climate change is a long-term shift in the statistics of the weather (including its averages). For example, it could show up as a change in climate normal (expected average values for temperature and precipitation)Read MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1630 Words   |  7 PagesClimate Related Threats Global warming will lead to uncontrollable devastation such as famine, war, and economic instability. Climate change will accelerate the dislocation of hundreds of millions of people and the extinction of many species. The negative effects of climate change are obvious on every continent. Professor Le Quere, director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at the University of East Anglia said, The human influence on climate change is clear. The atmosphere andRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1412 Words   |  6 Pages Earth’s climate has been changed for hundreds of year dating back to the beginning of man to the ice age and today, and with that change came scientists who have been keeping track and gathering data on these changes in the climate. The climate is the source of life it provides a secure environment setting for life forms to thrive without a proper climatic setting life would begin to dwindle and eventually all life forms would go extinct . But why is the climate so important moreover exactly what